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Whole-genome sequencing of the protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi revealed that the diploid genome contains a predicted 22,570 proteins encoded by genes, of which 12,570 represent allelic pairs. Over 50% of the genome consists of repeated sequences, such as retrotransposons and genes for large families of surface molecules, which include trans-sialidases, mucins, gp63s, and a large novel family (>1300 copies) of mucin-associated surface protein (MASP) genes. Analyses of the T. cruzi, T. brucei, and Leishmania major (Tritryp) genomes imply differences from other eukaryotes in DNA repair and initiation of replication and reflect their unusual mitochondrial DNA. Although the Tritryp lack several classes of signaling molecules, their kinomes contain a large and diverse set of protein kinases and phosphatases; their size and diversity imply previously unknown interactions and regulatory processes, which may be targets for intervention.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





409 - 415


Animals, Chagas Disease, DNA Repair, DNA Replication, DNA, Mitochondrial, DNA, Protozoan, Genes, Protozoan, Genome, Protozoan, Humans, Meiosis, Membrane Proteins, Multigene Family, Protozoan Proteins, Recombination, Genetic, Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid, Retroelements, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Signal Transduction, Telomere, Trypanocidal Agents, Trypanosoma cruzi