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Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health threat, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has announced a priority list of the most threatening pathogens against which novel antibiotics need to be developed. The discovery and introduction of novel antibiotics are time-consuming and expensive. According to WHO's report of antibacterial agents in clinical development, only 18 novel antibiotics have been approved since 2014. Therefore, novel antibiotics are critically needed. Artificial intelligence (AI) has been rapidly applied to drug development since its recent technical breakthrough and has dramatically improved the efficiency of the discovery of novel antibiotics. Here, we first summarized recently marketed novel antibiotics, and antibiotic candidates in clinical development. In addition, we systematically reviewed the involvement of AI in antibacterial drug development and utilization, including small molecules, antimicrobial peptides, phage therapy, essential oils, as well as resistance mechanism prediction, and antibiotic stewardship.

Original publication




Journal article


Mil Med Res

Publication Date





Antibiotic, Antibiotic stewardship, Antimicrobial peptide, Artificial intelligence (AI), Clinical development, Machine learning (ML), Phage therapy, Humans, Artificial Intelligence, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Public Health