Predictors of immune response and reactogenicity to AS03B-adjuvanted split virion and non-adjuvanted whole virion H1N1 (2009) pandemic influenza vaccines.
Andrews NJ., Walker WT., Finn A., Heath PT., Collinson AC., Pollard AJ., Snape MD., Faust SN., Waight PA., Hoschler K., Sheasby L., Waddington C., Kerridge S., Chalk J., Reiner A., John T., Fletcher M., Allen R., Fineman N., Wilkins S., Casey M., Michaelis L., Oeser C., Okike I., Ladhani S., Miller E.
In 2009, 943 children aged 6 months to 10 years were randomised to receive two doses of an oil-in water AS03B-adjuvanted split virion or a non-adjuvanted whole virion H1N1 (2009) vaccine. The large numbers allowed investigation of possible predictors of immune response and reactogenicity. We used regression analysis to examine the effect of variables including past receipt of seasonal vaccine, antipyretics post-vaccination, interval between doses and pre-existing antibodies to H1N1 (2009) on immunogenicity. We also examined the relationship between immunogenicity and reactogenicity and whether prior infection or underlying conditions affected reactogenicity. For both vaccines, haemagglutination-inhibition titres were 60% higher in children with fever ≥38 °C after vaccination and 29% lower in those previously given seasonal vaccine. Early use of antipyretics did not affect immunogenicity. Post-vaccination titres were higher with longer intervals between doses and in those with evidence of prior infection, but reactogenicity in the latter was unaffected. In the adjuvanted vaccine group, reactions were more common in children with atopy. Both vaccines were safe and immunogenic in those with prior infection. Reduction in the interval between doses for earlier protection would be at the cost of reduced immunogenicity. The effect of seasonal vaccine on immunogenicity merits further investigation.