Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

The majority of HIV-1 infections worldwide occur in Africa, where subtype B viruses are rare and intersubtype recombinants are common. Pathogenesis and vaccine studies need to focus on viruses derived from African patients, and infectious HIV-1 molecular clones can be useful tools. To clone non-B subtypes and recombinant viruses from patients, we cultivated HIV-1 from the plasma of a Kenyan long-term survivor. Viral DNA was cloned into a plasmid, which was transfected into COS cells; progeny virus was propagated in PBMCs. Sequence analyses revealed that both the patient's plasma HIV-1 RNA and the cloned DNA genomes were recombinants between subtypes D and C; subtype C sequences comprised the nef and LTR regions. The cloned virus used the CCR5 coreceptor and did not form syncytia in vitro. This infectious HIV-1 subtype D/C recombinant molecular clone obtained from a Kenyan long-term survivor promises to be useful to study pathogenesis and vaccine design.

Original publication




Journal article


AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses

Publication Date





1015 - 1018


Animals, COS Cells, Cercopithecus aethiops, Cloning, Molecular, DNA, Viral, Female, HIV Long-Term Survivors, HIV-1, Humans, Kenya, Molecular Sequence Data, Plasmids, Recombination, Genetic, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Transfection