Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

OBJECTIVES: To assess changes in HIV incidence and prevalence in Caió, a rural area of Guinea-Bissau, between 1990 and 2007. DESIGN: Three cross-sectional community surveys. METHODS: In 1990, 1997, and 2007, surveys were conducted among adults. The prevalence of HIV-1 and of HIV-2 was estimated for each survey, and incidence rates were calculated for the first (1990-1997) and second period (1997-2007). RESULTS: The HIV-1 incidence was approximately 4.5/1000 person-years in the two periods, whereas the HIV-2 incidence decreased from 4.7 (95% confidence interval 3.6-6.2) in the first to 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.4-3.0) per 1000 person-years in the second period (P < 0.001). HIV-1 prevalence rose from 0.5% in 1990 to 3.6% in 2007, and HIV-2 prevalence decreased from 8.3% in 1990 to 4.7% in 2007. HIV-1 prevalence was less than 2% in 15 to 24 year olds in all surveys and was highest (7.2%) in 2007 among 45 to 54 year olds. The HIV-2 prevalence was fivefold higher in older subjects (> or =45 yr) compared with those less than 45 years in both sexes in 2007. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1 incidence is stable, and its prevalence is increasing, whereas HIV-2 incidence and prevalence are both declining. In contrast with what has been observed in other sub-Saharan countries, HIV-1 prevalence is lower in younger age groups than older age groups.

Original publication




Journal article


J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr

Publication Date





640 - 647


Adolescent, Adult, Antibodies, Viral, Cohort Studies, Cross-Sectional Studies, DNA, Viral, Disease Outbreaks, Female, Guinea-Bissau, HIV Infections, HIV-1, HIV-2, Humans, Incidence, Male, Middle Aged, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Prevalence, Regression Analysis, Rural Population, Young Adult