Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Non-CNS chemokine production may contribute to previously unrecognised components of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) pathology. Here we show that IL-8, a neutrophil chemoattractant, is significantly increased in serum from individuals with MS, and that the rodent homolog of IL-8 (CXCL1) is expressed in the liver in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a rodent model of MS. The hepatic expression of CXCL1 in EAE is accompanied by neutrophil recruitment to the liver, and we show that this recruitment is a feature of post mortem liver tissue from MS patients, which is a previously unrecognised phenomenon. We speculated that the presence of peripheral CXC-chemokine expression might contribute to the sickness behaviours associated with MS, which are a significant contributor to morbidity. Peripheral, but not central, administration of CXCL1 to Wistar rats inhibited spontaneous activity in the open field and burrowing behaviour in a dose-dependent manner (5-45 microg). The expression of CXCL1 by the liver and the recruitment of neutrophils can be modelled by the intracerebral injection of IL-1beta. Here, we found that interferon-beta (IFN-beta) pretreatment significantly inhibited hepatic CXCL1 production and neutrophil recruitment to the liver induced by the microinjection of IL-1beta into the brain. Thus while the mechanism by which IFN-beta therapy suppresses disease in MS remains unclear, the data presented here suggests that the inhibition of hepatic chemokine synthesis may be a contributing factor.

Original publication




Journal article


Brain Behav Immun

Publication Date





738 - 746


Analysis of Variance, Animals, Behavior, Animal, Brain, Chemokine CXCL1, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental, Humans, Illness Behavior, Immunohistochemistry, Immunologic Factors, Interferon-beta, Interleukin-1beta, Interleukin-8, Liver, Male, Motor Activity, Multiple Sclerosis, Neutrophils, Rats, Rats, Wistar, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction