Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Glucose can react non-enzymatically with amino groups of, for example, proteins, to yield derivatives termed advanced glycation end products (AGE), which contribute to many chronic progressive diseases associated with microvascular complications. The study aimed to determine the effect of AGE-modified albumin on THP-1 cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) or human serum albumin (HSA), modified by glucose-derived AGE, was prepared by incubation with glucose for differing periods of time. Alternatively, BSA was incubated with sodium cyanoborohydride and glyoxylic acid to produce N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine-modified BSA (CML-BSA). Stimulation for 24h of THP-1 cells with BSA, incubated for 6-8 weeks with glucose, induced significant VEGF release. Human monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with extensively glycated HSA also showed significant VEGF release, as well as upregulation of IL-8 production, incubation for 6h with extensively glycated HSA increased release of TNFalpha and expression of tissue factor. Finally, addition of CML-BSA resulted in significant induction of TNFalpha and VEGF release. We demonstrate that a range of different methods of glycation of BSA and HSA, including CML-BSA, resulted in the induction of VEGF, TNFalpha, IL-8 and expression of tissue factor, according to length of stimulation and different glycation products used, suggesting that AGE-induced activation of macrophages may contribute to vascular complications by regulation of angiogenic, inflammatory and pro-coagulant processes.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





35 - 47


Cell Line, Cytokines, Gene Expression Regulation, Glucose, Glycation End Products, Advanced, Humans, Inflammation, Macrophages, Monocytes, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Serum Albumin, Serum Albumin, Bovine