Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Vaccination is well known to control many current infectious diseases. However, the development of cellular (Th1) immunity to control viral pathogens, among others, requires the development of new vaccine adjuvants. The use of Toll-like receptor ligands or cytokines has shown much promise, although specificity and toxicity are issues with these strategies. Targeting intracellular signaling pathways may allow for greater specificity of the adjuvant, as well as reducing systemic toxicity. Studies targeting these pathways are discussed, as well as their potential applications in the future.

Original publication




Journal article


Expert Rev Vaccines

Publication Date





971 - 980


Animals, Drug Delivery Systems, Humans, Intracellular Fluid, Signal Transduction, Toll-Like Receptors, Vaccination, Vaccines