A role for rebinding in rapid and reliable T cell responses to antigen.
Dushek O., Das R., Coombs D.
Experimental work has shown that T cells of the immune system rapidly and specifically respond to antigenic molecules presented on the surface of antigen-presenting-cells and are able to discriminate between potential stimuli based on the kinetic parameters of the T cell receptor-antigen bond. These antigenic molecules are presented among thousands of chemically similar endogenous peptides, raising the question of how T cells can reliably make a decision to respond to certain antigens but not others within minutes of encountering an antigen presenting cell. In this theoretical study, we investigate the role of localized rebinding between a T cell receptor and an antigen. We show that by allowing the signaling state of individual receptors to persist during brief unbinding events, T cells are able to discriminate antigens based on both their unbinding and rebinding rates. We demonstrate that T cell receptor coreceptors, but not receptor clustering, are important in promoting localized rebinding, and show that requiring rebinding for productive signaling reduces signals from a high concentration of endogenous pMHC. In developing our main results, we use a relatively simple model based on kinetic proofreading. However, we additionally show that all our results are recapitulated when we use a detailed T cell receptor signaling model. We discuss our results in the context of existing models and recent experimental work and propose new experiments to test our findings.