Life on the inside: the intracellular lifestyle of cytosolic bacteria.
Ray K., Marteyn B., Sansonetti PJ., Tang CM.
Bacterial pathogens exploit a huge range of niches within their hosts. Many pathogens can invade non-phagocytic cells and survive within a membrane-bound compartment. However, only a small number of bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis and Rickettsia spp., can gain access to and proliferate within the host cell cytosol. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which these cytosolic pathogens escape into the cytosol, obtain nutrients to replicate and subvert host immune responses.