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Recent advances in class II tetramer staining technology have allowed reliable direct ex vivo visualization of antigen-specific CD4 T cells. In order to define the frequency and phenotype of a prototype response to a nonpersistent pathogen, we have used such techniques to analyze influenza virus-specific memory CD4 T cells directly from blood. These responses are stably detectable ex vivo at low frequencies (range, 0.00012 to 0.0061% of CD4 T cells) and display a distinct "central memory" CD62L(+) phenotype.

Original publication




Journal article


J Virol

Publication Date





7284 - 7287


CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Genes, MHC Class II, HLA-DR Antigens, Humans, Immunologic Memory, L-Selectin, Orthomyxoviridae, Phenotype