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Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and is endemic in hospitals, hindering the identification of sources and routes of transmission based on shared time and space alone. This may compromise rational control despite costly prevention strategies. This study aimed to investigate ward-based transmission of C. difficile, by subdividing outbreaks into distinct lineages defined by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST).

Original publication




Journal article


PLoS Med

Publication Date





National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom.


Anti-Bacterial Agents, Base Sequence, Clostridium difficile, Cross Infection, Diarrhea, Endemic Diseases, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous, Gastrointestinal Tract, Hospital Units, Hospitalization, Humans, Infection Control, Multilocus Sequence Typing