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The immunodominant CD4 T cell epitope region, Th2R, of the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum is highly polymorphic. Such variation might be utilized by the parasite to escape from or interfere with CD4 T cell effector functions. Here, we show that costimulation with naturally occurring altered peptide ligands (APL) can induce a rapid change from IFNgamma production to the immunosuppressive mediator interleukin 10 (IL-10). This mechanism may contribute to the low levels of T cell responses observed to this pathogen in malaria-endemic areas.


Journal article



Publication Date





651 - 660


Adult, Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Antigens, Protozoan, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Cells, Cultured, Cross Reactions, Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte, Humans, Immune Tolerance, Immunodominant Epitopes, Interferon-gamma, Interleukin-10, Lymphocyte Activation, Molecular Sequence Data, Peptide Fragments, Plasmodium falciparum, Protozoan Proteins, Sequence Alignment