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Controlled human malaria infection by blood stage parasite (BSP) inoculation is an alternative to the well-established model of infection with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites delivered by mosquito bites. The BSP model has been utilized less frequently, but its use is increasing. Advantages of BSP challenge include greater ease of administration, better standardization of the infecting dose per volunteer, and good inter-study reproducibility of in vivo parasite dynamics. Recently, a surprising reduction in clinical symptoms at microscopic patency in the BSP model has been identified, which has an undefined and intriguing pathophysiologic basis, but may make this approach more acceptable to volunteers. We summarize clinical, parasitologic, and immunologic data from all BSP challenges to date, explore differences between the BSP and sporozoite models, and propose future applications for BSP challenge.

Original publication




Journal article


Am J Trop Med Hyg

Publication Date





561 - 565


Animals, Anopheles, Humans, Insect Bites and Stings, Malaria Vaccines, Malaria, Falciparum, Plasmodium falciparum, Sporozoites