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Macrophages are scavengers of the innate immune system that eliminate dead, dying and pathogen-infected cells, but also contribute substantially to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Cell-free HIV-1 infection of macrophages is inefficient and may be a bottleneck for transmitted viruses. Here we describe a novel mechanism of macrophage infection involving macrophage phagocytosis of HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells. These results have implications for establishment of the macrophage reservoir and HIV-1 dissemination in vivo.


Journal article


Nature Medicine

Publication Date



In 2nd revision