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For many years the IFN-gamma ex vivo ELISPOT has been a major assay for assessing human T-cell responses generated by malaria vaccines. The ELISPOT assay is a sensitive assay, but an imperfect correlate of protection against malaria. Monokine induced by gamma (MIG), or CXCL9, is a chemokine induced by IFN-gamma and has the potential to provide amplification of the IFN-gamma signal. MIG secretion could provide a measure of bio-active IFN-gamma and a functional IFN-gamma signalling pathway. We report that detecting MIG by flow cytometry and by RT-PCR can be more sensitive than the detection of IFN-gamma using these methods. We also find that there is little inter-individual variability in MIG secretion when detected by flow cytometry and that the MIG assay may be used to estimate the amount of bio-active IFN-gamma present. Measurement of MIG alongside IFN-gamma may provide a fuller picture of Th1 type responses post-vaccination.

Original publication




Journal article


J Immunol Methods

Publication Date





33 - 41


Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Animals, Brefeldin A, Chemokine CXCL9, Female, Flow Cytometry, Humans, Interferon-gamma, Malaria Vaccines, Malaria, Falciparum, Male, Middle Aged, Plasmodium falciparum, RNA, Messenger, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, T-Lymphocytes, Vaccines, Synthetic, Young Adult