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Medical research continues to illuminate the origins of many human diseases. Gene therapy has been widely proposed as a novel strategy by which this knowledge can be used to deliver new and improved therapies. Viral gene transfer is relatively efficient but there are concerns relating to the use of viral vectors in humans. Conversely, nonviral vectors appear safe but inefficient. Therefore, the development of an efficient nonviral vector remains a highly desirable goal. This review focuses on the numerous challenges preventing efficient nonviral gene transfer in vivo and discusses the many technologies that have been adopted to overcome these problems.

Original publication




Journal article


Expert Rev Mol Med

Publication Date





1 - 15


Animals, DNA, Endocytosis, Gene Transfer Techniques, Genetic Diseases, Inborn, Humans, Membrane Lipids, Models, Molecular, Molecular Biology, Receptors, Cell Surface, Transfection, Transgenes