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Immunization with irradiated sporozoites can protect against malaria infection and intensive efforts are aimed at reproducing this effect with subunit vaccines. A particular sequence of subunit immunization with pre-erythrocytic antigens of Plasmodium berghei, consisting of single dose priming with plasmid DNA followed by a single boost with a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the same antigen, induced unprecedented complete protection against P. berghei sporozoite challenge in two strains of mice. Protection was associated with very high levels of splenic peptide-specific interferon-gamma-secreting CD8+ T cells and was abrogated when the order of immunization was reversed. DNA priming followed by MVA boosting may provide a general immunization regime for induction of high levels of CD8+ T cells.


Journal article


Nat Med

Publication Date





397 - 402


Animals, Anopheles, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Cells, Cultured, Chick Embryo, Cytotoxicity, Immunologic, Female, Humans, Immunization, Secondary, Interferon-gamma, Interleukin-2, Lymphocyte Activation, Malaria, Malaria Vaccines, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Plasmids, Plasmodium berghei, Species Specificity, Spleen, Vaccines, DNA, Vaccinia virus