Interleukin-10 promoter polymorphisms and the outcome of hepatitis C virus infection.
Knapp S., Hennig BJW., Frodsham AJ., Zhang L., Hellier S., Wright M., Goldin R., Hill AVS., Thomas HC., Thursz MR.
The natural outcome and response to treatment in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection varies between individuals. Whereas some variation may be attributable to viral and environmental variables, it is probable that host genetic background also plays a significant role. Interleukin (IL)-10 has a key function in the regulation of cellular immune responses and in the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Functional polymorphisms in the IL-10 gene have been described. We investigated the role of these polymorphisms in the outcome of HCV infection, treatment response and development of fibrosis in a case-control association study. Self-limiting infection was associated with the IL-10 (-592) AA genotype (OR=2.05; P=0.028). Persistent infection was associated with the IL-10 (-1082) GG genotype (OR=0.48; P=0.018). Sustained response to interferon therapy was associated with the IL-10 (-1082) GG genotype (OR=2.28; P=0.005) and the haplotype GCC (OR=2.27; P=0.020). The IL-10 (-1082) AA genotype and the ATA/ATA and ACC/ACC homozygous haplotypes were more frequent among patients with rapid fibrosis. Furthermore, the microsatellites IL-10.R and IL-10.G were associated with interferon response with IL-10R.2 conveying susceptibility (OR=1.80; P=0.034), and IL-10R.3 and IL-10.G13 being protective (OR=0.47; P=0.003 and OR=0.59; P=0.042, respectively). We conclude that polymorphisms in the IL-10 promoter appear to have some influence on the outcome of HCV infection, treatment and development of fibrosis.