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Alternate prime/boost vaccination regimens employing recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus or MVA, expressing Influenza A virus nucleoprotein and matrix protein 1, induced antigen-specific T cell responses in intradermally (ID) vaccinated mice; with the strongest responses resulting from Ad/MVA immunization. In BALB/C mice the immunodominant response was shifted from the previously identified immunodominant epitope to a novel epitope when the antigen was derived from A/Panama/2007/1999 rather than A/PR/8. Alternate immunization routes did not affect the magnitude of antigen-specific systemic IFN-γ response, but higher CD8(+) T-cell IFN-γ immune responses were seen in the bronchoalveolar lavage following intransal (IN) boosting after intramuscular (IM) priming, whilst higher splenic antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell IFN-γ was seen following IM boosting. Partial protection against heterologous influenza virus challenge was achieved following either IM/IM or IM/IN but not ID/ID immunization. These data may be of relevance for the design of optimal immunization regimens for human influenza vaccines, especially for influenza-naïve infants.

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Journal article


Sci Rep

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Adenoviridae, Administration, Intranasal, Animals, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Cytokines, Female, Genetic Vectors, Immunization, Secondary, Influenza Vaccines, Influenzavirus A, Injections, Intradermal, Interferon-gamma, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Orthomyxoviridae Infections, RNA-Binding Proteins, Spleen, Vaccinia virus, Viral Core Proteins, Viral Matrix Proteins