Theileria parva candidate vaccine antigens recognized by immune bovine cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
Graham SP., Pellé R., Honda Y., Mwangi DM., Tonukari NJ., Yamage M., Glew EJ., de Villiers EP., Shah T., Bishop R., Abuya E., Awino E., Gachanja J., Luyai AE., Mbwika F., Muthiani AM., Ndegwa DM., Njahira M., Nyanjui JK., Onono FO., Osaso J., Saya RM., Wildmann C., Fraser CM., Maudlin I., Gardner MJ., Morzaria SP., Loosmore S., Gilbert SC., Audonnet J-C., van der Bruggen P., Nene V., Taracha ELN.
East Coast fever, caused by the tick-borne intracellular apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva, is a highly fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle. The pathogenic schizont-induced lymphocyte transformation is a unique cancer-like condition that is reversible with parasite removal. Schizont-infected cell-directed CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) constitute the dominant protective bovine immune response after a single exposure to infection. However, the schizont antigens targeted by T. parva-specific CTL are undefined. Here we show the identification of five candidate vaccine antigens that are the targets of MHC class I-restricted CD8(+) CTL from immune cattle. CD8(+) T cell responses to these antigens were boosted in T. parva-immune cattle resolving a challenge infection and, when used to immunize naïve cattle, induced CTL responses that significantly correlated with survival from a lethal parasite challenge. These data provide a basis for developing a CTL-targeted anti-East Coast fever subunit vaccine. In addition, orthologs of these antigens may be vaccine targets for other apicomplexan parasites.