Dynamic imaging of the effector immune response to listeria infection in vivo.
Waite JC., Leiner I., Lauer P., Rae CS., Barbet G., Zheng H., Portnoy DA., Pamer EG., Dustin ML.
Host defense against the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) requires innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we directly imaged immune cell dynamics at Lm foci established by dendritic cells in the subcapsular red pulp (scDC) using intravital microscopy. Blood borne Lm rapidly associated with scDC. Myelomonocytic cells (MMC) swarmed around non-motile scDC forming foci from which blood flow was excluded. The depletion of scDC after foci were established resulted in a 10-fold reduction in viable Lm, while graded depletion of MMC resulted in 30-1000 fold increase in viable Lm in foci with enhanced blood flow. Effector CD8+ T cells at sites of infection displayed a two-tiered reduction in motility with antigen independent and antigen dependent components, including stable interactions with infected and non-infected scDC. Thus, swarming MMC contribute to control of Lm prior to development of T cell immunity by direct killing and sequestration from blood flow, while scDC appear to promote Lm survival while preferentially interacting with CD8+ T cells in effector sites.