Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND: 4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsenoxide (GSAO) is a water-soluble mitochondrial toxin that binds to adenine nucleotide translocase in the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby targeting cell proliferation. This phase 1 study investigated safety, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and pharmacokinetics (PK) of GSAO as a daily 1-h infusion for 5 days a week for 2 weeks in every three. Pharmacodynamics of GSAO was evaluated by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and circulating markers of angiogenesis. METHODS: Patients with advanced solid tumours received GSAO in a dose-escalation trial according to a standard '3 + 3' design that was guided by toxicity and, for the final dose escalation, by arsenic PK data. RESULTS: A total of 34 patients were treated with GSAO across 9 dose levels (1.3-44.0 mg/m(2)). Treatment was well tolerated with few adverse events. An additional three patients were enrolled at the 12.4 mg/m(2) dose level following a DLT of derangement of liver function tests (grade 4). At the 44.0 mg/m(2) dose level, two out of three patients had DLTs (reversible encephalopathy; paroxysmal atrial fibrillation). CONCLUSIONS: The MTD of GSAO was 22.0 mg/m(2)/day. There was no biomarker evidence from DCE-MRI or circulating markers of angiogenesis of an anti-vascular effect of GSAO.

Original publication




Journal article


Cancer Chemother Pharmacol

Publication Date





1343 - 1352


Adult, Aged, Antineoplastic Agents, Arsenicals, Cell Proliferation, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Female, Glutathione, Humans, Infusions, Intravenous, Liver Function Tests, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Maximum Tolerated Dose, Middle Aged, Neoplasms, Neovascularization, Pathologic