XIAP restricts TNF- and RIP3-dependent cell death and inflammasome activation.
Yabal M., Müller N., Adler H., Knies N., Groß CJ., Damgaard RB., Kanegane H., Ringelhan M., Kaufmann T., Heikenwälder M., Strasser A., Groß O., Ruland J., Peschel C., Gyrd-Hansen M., Jost PJ.
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) has been identified as a potent regulator of innate immune responses, and loss-of-function mutations in XIAP cause the development of the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2 (XLP-2) in humans. Using gene-targeted mice, we show that loss of XIAP or deletion of its RING domain lead to excessive cell death and IL-1β secretion from dendritic cells triggered by diverse Toll-like receptor stimuli. Aberrant IL-1β secretion is TNF dependent and requires RIP3 but is independent of cIAP1/cIAP2. The observed cell death also requires TNF and RIP3 but proceeds independently of caspase-1/caspase-11 or caspase-8 function. Loss of XIAP results in aberrantly elevated ubiquitylation of RIP1 outside of TNFR complex I. Virally infected Xiap(-/-) mice present with symptoms reminiscent of XLP-2. Our data show that XIAP controls RIP3-dependent cell death and IL-1β secretion in response to TNF, which might contribute to hyperinflammation in patients with XLP-2.