A novel mutagenesis strategy identifies distantly spaced amino acid sequences that are required for the phosphorylation of both the oligosaccharides of procathepsin D by N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphotransferase.
Dustin ML., Baranski TJ., Sampath D., Kornfeld S.
A novel combinatorial mutagenesis strategy (shuffle mutagenesis) was developed to identify sequences in the propiece and amino lobe of cathepsin D which direct oligosaccharide phosphorylation by UDP-GlcNAc:lysosomal enzyme N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphotransferase. Propiece restriction fragments and oligonucleotide cassettes corresponding to 13 regions of the cathepsin D and glycopepsinogen amino lobes were randomly shuffled together to generate a large library of chimeric molecules. The library was inserted into an expression vector encoding the carboxyl lobe of cathepsin D with a carboxyl-terminal myc epitope and a CD8 transmembrane extension. Transfected COS1 cells expressing the membrane-anchored forms of the cathepsin D/glycopepsinogen chimeras at the cell surface were selected with solid phase mannose 6-phosphate receptor or an antibody to the myc epitope. Plasmids were rescued in Escherichia coli and sequenced by hybridization to the original oligonucleotide cassettes. Two regions of the cathepsin D amino lobe (segments 7 and 12) were found to contribute to proper folding, surface expression, and selective phosphorylation of the carboxyl lobe oligosaccharide. Two different cathepsin D regions (the propiece and segment 5) cooperated with a previously identified recognition element in the carboxyl lobe to allow efficient phosphorylation of both the amino and carboxyl lobe oligosaccharides. Three general models for extending the catalytic reach of N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphotransferase to widely spaced oligosaccharides are presented.