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A novel combinatorial mutagenesis strategy (shuffle mutagenesis) was developed to identify sequences in the propiece and amino lobe of cathepsin D which direct oligosaccharide phosphorylation by UDP-GlcNAc:lysosomal enzyme N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphotransferase. Propiece restriction fragments and oligonucleotide cassettes corresponding to 13 regions of the cathepsin D and glycopepsinogen amino lobes were randomly shuffled together to generate a large library of chimeric molecules. The library was inserted into an expression vector encoding the carboxyl lobe of cathepsin D with a carboxyl-terminal myc epitope and a CD8 transmembrane extension. Transfected COS1 cells expressing the membrane-anchored forms of the cathepsin D/glycopepsinogen chimeras at the cell surface were selected with solid phase mannose 6-phosphate receptor or an antibody to the myc epitope. Plasmids were rescued in Escherichia coli and sequenced by hybridization to the original oligonucleotide cassettes. Two regions of the cathepsin D amino lobe (segments 7 and 12) were found to contribute to proper folding, surface expression, and selective phosphorylation of the carboxyl lobe oligosaccharide. Two different cathepsin D regions (the propiece and segment 5) cooperated with a previously identified recognition element in the carboxyl lobe to allow efficient phosphorylation of both the amino and carboxyl lobe oligosaccharides. Three general models for extending the catalytic reach of N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphotransferase to widely spaced oligosaccharides are presented.

Original publication




Journal article


J Biol Chem

Publication Date





170 - 179


Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases, Cathepsin D, Cell Line, Cell Membrane, Enzyme Precursors, Genetic Vectors, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutagenesis, Oligosaccharides, Phosphorylation, Recombinant Fusion Proteins, Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups)