Regulation of locomotion and cell-cell contact area by the LFA-1 and ICAM-1 adhesion receptors.
Dustin ML., Carpen O., Springer TA.
We demonstrate complementary differences in the behavior of B lymphoblastoid cells adhering to LFA-1 or its counter-receptor ICAM-1. The interaction of B lymphoblastoid cells with glass-supported planar bilayers bearing LFA-1 or ICAM-1 was observed by time-lapse video microscopy, and the distribution of adhesion receptors on cells interacting with the planar bilayers was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy. B lymphoblasts formed a large contact area and crawled rapidly (up to 25 microns/min) on planar bilayers bearing ICAM-1. In contrast, these cells attached to planar bilayers bearing LFA-1 through a fixed point about which the cells actively pivoted, using a single stalk-like projection. Phorbol ester-stimulated lymphoblasts, which adhere more strongly to ICAM-1-bearing substrates than unstimulated lymphoblasts, were still capable of locomotion on ICAM-1. Phorbol ester stimulation of B lymphoblasts on planar bilayers bearing LFA-1 promoted a rapid conversion from "stalk" attachment to symmetrical spreading of the cell on the substrate. Cellular LFA-1 remained uniformly distributed on the cell surface during interaction with bilayers bearing purified ICAM-1 as determined by immunofluorescence. In contrast, ICAM-1 was concentrated in the stalk-like structure through which the unstimulated B lymphoblasts adhered to LFA-1 in planar bilayers, but ICAM-1 immunofluorescence became more uniformly distributed over the cell surface within minutes of phorbol ester addition. Neither LFA-1 or ICAM-1 colocalized with the prominent staining of filamentous actin in the ruffling membrane regions. Interaction through cell surface LFA-1 and ICAM-1, 2, or 3 promotes different cellular morphologies and behaviors, the correlation of which with previously observed patterns of lymphocyte interaction with different cell types is discussed.