Mechanisms of antibody immunotherapy on clonal islet reactive T cells.
van de Linde P., Tysma OMH., Medema JP., Hale G., Waldmann H., Roelen DL., Roep BO.
Clinical intervention trials evaluating the efficacy of antibody immunotherapy in type 1 diabetes are in progress. We tested effects on prediabetic islet antigen-specific autoreactive T cells of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and humanized monoclonal antibodies against CD3 (ChAglyCD3) or CD25 (daclizumab) with regard to downmodulation of the target protein, proliferation, cytokine production, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC), and survival. ATG leads to depletion of autoreactive CD4+ T cells by ADCC, CDC, and apoptosis, whereas anti-CD3 and anti-CD25 inhibited T-cell autoreactivity in a nondepleting fashion. ATG treatment led to a cytokine burst of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines. Modulation of cytokine release through humanized monoclonal antibodies was moderate and selective: anti-CD25 led to increased release of IL-2 and reduced production of TNFalpha, whereas anti-CD3 decreased release of interferon-y and IL-5 and increased secretion of IL-10. ATG and the humanized monoclonal antibodies displayed contrasting mechanisms of action.