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© 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. There has been a marked change in the therapeutics available to patients. In the past century, these were nearly all small-molecule chemicals, absorbable via the gut. Now, since the late 1990s, there is a major alternative, monoclonal antibodies and antibody-like fusion proteins. This chapter summarizes the research that led to defining tumor necrosis factor, TNF, as a therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis and its therapeutic success that changed the perception of antibodies as therapeutics.

Original publication





Book title

Molecular Biology of B Cells: Second Edition

Publication Date



541 - 547