Results of the Phase I Trial of RG7112, a Small-Molecule MDM2 Antagonist in Leukemia.
Andreeff M., Kelly KR., Yee K., Assouline S., Strair R., Popplewell L., Bowen D., Martinelli G., Drummond MW., Vyas P., Kirschbaum M., Iyer SP., Ruvolo V., González GMN., Huang X., Chen G., Graves B., Blotner S., Bridge P., Jukofsky L., Middleton S., Reckner M., Rueger R., Zhi J., Nichols G., Kojima K.
PURPOSE: RG7112 is a small-molecule MDM2 antagonist. MDM2 is a negative regulator of the tumor suppressor p53 and frequently overexpressed in leukemias. Thus, a phase I study of RG7112 in patients with hematologic malignancies was conducted. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Primary study objectives included determination of the dose and safety profile of RG7112. Secondary objectives included evaluation of pharmacokinetics; pharmacodynamics, such as TP53-mutation status and MDM2 expression; and preliminary clinical activity. Patients were divided into two cohorts: Stratum A [relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML; except acute promyelocytic leukemia), acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and chronic myelogenous leukemia] and Stratum B (relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small cell lymphocytic leukemia; CLL/sCLL). Some Stratum A patients were treated at the MTD to assess clinical activity. RESULTS: RG7112 was administered to 116 patients (96 patients in Stratum A and 20 patients in Stratum B). All patients experienced at least 1 adverse event, and 3 dose-limiting toxicities were reported. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that twice-daily dosing enhanced daily exposure. Antileukemia activity was observed in the 30 patients with AML assessed at the MTD, including 5 patients who met International Working Group (IWG) criteria for response. Exploratory analysis revealed TP53 mutations in 14% of Stratum A patients and in 40% of Stratum B patients. Two patients with TP53 mutations exhibited clinical activity. p53 target genes were induced only in TP53 wild-type leukemic cells. Baseline expression levels of MDM2 correlated positively with clinical response. CONCLUSIONS: RG7112 demonstrated clinical activity against relapsed/refractory AML and CLL/sCLL. MDM2 inhibition resulted in p53 stabilization and transcriptional activation of p53-target genes. We provide proof-of-concept that MDM2 inhibition restores p53 function and generates clinical responses in hematologic malignancies.