Polymorphisms of Transporter Associated with Antigen Presentation, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interleukin-10 and their Implications for Protection and Susceptibility to Severe Forms of Dengue Fever in Patients in Sri Lanka.
Fernando AN., Malavige GN., Perera KLN., Premawansa S., Ogg GS., De Silva AD.
CONTEXT: To date, a clear understanding of dengue disease pathogenesis remains elusive. Some infected individuals display no symptoms while others develop severe life-threatening forms of the disease. It is widely believed that host genetic factors influence dengue severity. AIMS: This study evaluates the relationship between certain polymorphisms and dengue severity in Sri Lankan patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Polymorphism studies are carried out on genes for; transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP), promoter of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and promoter of interleukin-10 (IL-10). In other populations, TAP1 (333), TAP2 (379), TNF-α (-308), and IL-10 (-1082, -819, -592) have been associated with dengue and a number of different diseases. Data have not been collected previously for these polymorphisms for dengue patients in Sri Lanka. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The polymorphisms were typed by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction in 107 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) patients together with 62 healthy controls. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Pearson's Chi-square contingency table analysis with Yates' correction. RESULTS: Neither the TAP nor the IL-10 polymorphisms considered individually can define dengue disease outcome with regard to severity. However, the genotype combination, IL-10 (-592/-819/-1082) CCA/ATA was significantly associated with development of severe dengue in these patients, suggesting a risk factor to developing DHF. Also, identified is the genotype combination IL-10 (-592/-819/-1082) ATA/ATG which suggested a possibility for protection from DHF. The TNF-α (-308) GG genotype was also significantly associated with severe dengue, suggesting a significant risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: The results reported here are specific to the Sri Lankan population. Comparisons with previous reports imply that data may vary from population to population.