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BACKGROUND: Models of controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) initiated by mosquito bite have been widely used to assess efficacy of preerythrocytic vaccine candidates in small proof-of-concept phase 2a clinical trials. Efficacy testing of blood-stage malaria parasite vaccines, however, has generally relied on larger-scale phase 2b field trials in malaria-endemic populations. We report the use of a blood-stage P. falciparum CHMI model to assess blood-stage vaccine candidates, using their impact on the parasite multiplication rate (PMR) as the primary efficacy end point. METHODS: Fifteen healthy United Kingdom adult volunteers were vaccinated with FMP2.1, a protein vaccine that is based on the 3D7 clone sequence of apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and formulated in Adjuvant System 01 (AS01). Twelve vaccinees and 15 infectivity controls subsequently underwent blood-stage CHMI. Parasitemia was monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, and PMR was modeled from these data. RESULTS: FMP2.1/AS01 elicited anti-AMA1 T-cell and serum antibody responses. Analysis of purified immunoglobulin G showed functional growth inhibitory activity against P. falciparum in vitro. There were no vaccine- or CHMI-related safety concerns. All volunteers developed blood-stage parasitemia, with no impact of the vaccine on PMR. CONCLUSIONS: FMP2.1/AS01 demonstrated no efficacy after blood-stage CHMI. However, the model induced highly reproducible infection in all volunteers and will accelerate proof-of-concept testing of future blood-stage vaccine candidates. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02044198.

Original publication




Journal article


J Infect Dis

Publication Date





1743 - 1751


AMA1, CHMI, blood stage, malaria, vaccine, Adult, Antigens, Protozoan, Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay, Erythrocytes, Female, Humans, Immunogenicity, Vaccine, Life Cycle Stages, Malaria Vaccines, Malaria, Falciparum, Male, Membrane Proteins, Middle Aged, Models, Biological, Plasmodium falciparum, Protozoan Proteins, Young Adult