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The field of lymphatic research has benefited enormously from the discovery of "marker" proteins that permit not only the identification and quantitation of lymphatic vessels in tissue sections for tumor pathology but also the isolation of primary lymphatic endothelial cells for basic research. This chapter focuses on the use of these markers for the immunohistochemical analysis of lymphangiogenesis in both frozen and paraffin-embedded tissue sections and discusses current protocols including newer versions employing biotin tyramide amplification and their associated problems.

Original publication




Journal article


Methods Mol Biol

Publication Date





35 - 48


Chalkley grid, Immunofluorescence, LYVE-1, Lymphangiogenesis, Lymphatic, Peroxidase, Podoplanin, Animals, Biomarkers, Biotin, Cell Proliferation, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Lymphangiogenesis, Lymphatic Vessels, Mice, Paraffin Embedding, Tissue Preservation, Tyramine