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Two loci, Idd5.1 and Idd5.2, that determine susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the NOD mouse are on chromosome 1. Idd5.1 is likely accounted for by a synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 2 of Ctla4: the B10-derived T1D-resistant allele increases the expression of the ligand-independent isoform of CTLA-4 (liCTLA-4), a molecule that mediates negative signaling in T cells. Idd5.2 is probably Nramp1 (Slc11a1), which encodes a phagosomal membrane protein that is a metal efflux pump and is important for host defense and Ag presentation. In this study, two additional loci, Idd5.3 and Idd5.4, have been defined to 3.553 and 78 Mb regions, respectively, on linked regions of chromosome 1. The most striking findings, however, concern the evidence we have obtained for strong interactions between these four disease loci that help explain the association of human CTLA4 with T1D. In the presence of a susceptibility allele at Idd5.4, the CTLA-4 resistance allele causes an 80% reduction in T1D, whereas in the presence of a protective allele at Idd5.4, the effects of the resistance allele at Ctla4 are modest or, as in the case in which resistance alleles at Idd5.2 and Idd5.3 are present, completely masked. This masking of CTLA-4 alleles by different genetic backgrounds provides an explanation for our observation that the human CTLA-4 gene is only associated with T1D in the subgroup of human T1D patients with anti-thyroid autoimmunity.


Journal article


J Immunol

Publication Date





8341 - 8349


Alleles, Animals, Antigens, CD, Antigens, Differentiation, CTLA-4 Antigen, Cation Transport Proteins, Chromosome Mapping, Chromosomes, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Gene Dosage, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Humans, Mice, Mice, Congenic