Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Type 1 diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse arises as a consequence of T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Although little is known of the events that initiate and subsequently drive beta-cell destruction it is clear that the entire process is under complex genetic control. At present 19 loci have been mapped that influence the development of diabetes either at the level of initiation of insulitis or at the level of progression from insulitis to overt diabetes, or both. Previously, we have mapped one of these loci, Idd3, to a 0.35-cM interval on proximal mouse chromosome 3. In the present study we have narrowed the map position of this locus to an interval of 0.15 cM by a combination of novel congenic strains and an ancestral haplotype analysis approach. We have constructed a physical contig in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones across the minimal interval. Restriction mapping of the BAC contig placed the maximum size of the Idd3 interval at 780 kb between the markers D3Nds36 and D3Nds76. To refine further the Idd3 interval we developed a series of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and carried out haplotype analysis on DNA from mouse strains known to carry either Idd3 susceptibility or protective alleles. This haplotype analysis identified a 145-kb segment of ancestral DNA between the microsatellite marker D3Nds6 and the SNP 81.3. One haplotype of this ancestral segment of DNA is found in mouse strains carrying an Idd3 susceptibility allele and another is found in mouse strains carrying an Idd3 protective allelle. Within the 780-kb congenically defined interval this 145-kb segment represents the most likely location for Idd3. The Il2 gene, which encodes the cytokine interleukin 2 (IL2), maps to this interval and is a strong candidate for Idd3. To investigate whether sequence variation exists in the promoter region of the Il2 gene, which might alter its expression, we sequenced the promoter region of the Il2 gene from mouse strains carrying either an Idd3 susceptibility or resistance allele. Two sequence variants were identified, neither of which fell in known regulatory elements within the Il2 promoter. In agreement with this observation steady-state Il2 mRNA levels showed no variation between susceptible and resistant mouse strains. These data suggest that the profound protection from diabetes seen in congenic mice carrying an Idd3 protective allele is unlikely to be due to differences in the level of expression of the Il2 gene. Instead, all of the current data support our hypothesis that Idd3 corresponds to amino acid variation at the amino terminus of Il2.


Journal article


Genome Res

Publication Date





446 - 453


Alleles, Animals, Chromosomes, Bacterial, Contig Mapping, DNA, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Gene Expression Regulation, Genetic Markers, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genetic Variation, Genomic Library, Haplotypes, Interleukin-2, Mice, Mice, Congenic, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Inbred NOD, Microsatellite Repeats, Microtubule-Associated Proteins, Molecular Sequence Data, RNA-Binding Proteins