The role of the unfolded protein response in dengue virus pathogenesis
Perera N., Miller J., Zitzmann N.
Symptomatic dengue virus (DENV) infections range from mild fever to severe haemorrhagic disease and death. Host-viral interactions play a significant role in deciding the fate of the infection. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a pro-survival cellular reaction induced in response to DENV mediated ER stress. The UPR has complex interactions with the cellular autophagy machinery, apoptosis and innate immunity. DENV has evolved to manipulate the UPR to facilitate its replication and to evade host immunity. Our knowledge of this intertwined network of events is continuously developing. A better understanding of the UPR mediated antiviral and pro-viral effects will shed light on dengue disease pathogenesis and may help development of anti-DENV therapeutics. This review summarizes the role of the UPR in viral replication, autophagy and DENV induced inflammation to describe how a host response contributes to DENV pathogenesis.