Viral interference in the tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. II. Absence of interference with Thogoto virus when the tick gut is by-passed by parenteral inoculation.
Jones LD., Davies CR., Booth TF., Nuttall PA.
Genetic reassortment of Thogoto (THO) virus has been demonstrated in dually infected Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks. However previous results showed that oral superinfection is inhibited by interference. To ascertain the site of THO viral interference, ticks were infected parenterally or orally with a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of THO virus. Infected ticks were then challenged with wild-type (wt) THO virus via parenteral inoculation. Intra-stadial superinfection was carried out by parenteral inoculation of newly infected engorged ticks whereas inter-stadial superinfection involved inoculation of engorged ticks infected at the previous stage. In both instances viral interference was not observed, i.e. the challenge virus replicated and was delivered by bite to susceptible hosts. Therefore when the gut is bypassed, R. appendiculatus ticks are apparently permissive to dual infection even when there is a delay in the presentation of the superinfecting virus. These results demonstrate that interference following superinfection per os does not occur in the salivary glands, but may occur in the gut and possibly in a secondary site of viral replication such as the synganglion.