Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Genetic reassortment of Thogoto (THO) virus has been demonstrated in dually infected Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks. However previous results showed that oral superinfection is inhibited by interference. To ascertain the site of THO viral interference, ticks were infected parenterally or orally with a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of THO virus. Infected ticks were then challenged with wild-type (wt) THO virus via parenteral inoculation. Intra-stadial superinfection was carried out by parenteral inoculation of newly infected engorged ticks whereas inter-stadial superinfection involved inoculation of engorged ticks infected at the previous stage. In both instances viral interference was not observed, i.e. the challenge virus replicated and was delivered by bite to susceptible hosts. Therefore when the gut is bypassed, R. appendiculatus ticks are apparently permissive to dual infection even when there is a delay in the presentation of the superinfecting virus. These results demonstrate that interference following superinfection per os does not occur in the salivary glands, but may occur in the gut and possibly in a secondary site of viral replication such as the synganglion.

Original publication




Journal article


J Gen Virol

Publication Date



70 ( Pt 9)


2469 - 2473


Animals, Cricetinae, Digestive System, Mutation, Orthomyxoviridae, Species Specificity, Temperature, Ticks, Viral Interference, Virus Diseases, Virus Replication