Periostin expression in neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of bone and joint.
Brown JM., Mantoku A., Sabokbar A., Oppermann U., Hassan AB., Kudo A., Athanasou N.
Background: Periostin is a matricellular protein that is expressed in bone and joint tissues. To determine the expression of periostin in primary bone tumours and to assess whether it plays a role in tumour progression, we carried out immunohistochemistry and ELISA for periostin in a range of neoplastic and non-neoplastic bone and joint lesions. Methods: 140 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of bone tumours and tumour-like lesions were stained by an indirect immunoperoxidase technique with a polyclonal anti-periostin antibody. Periostin expression was also assessed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and non-inflammatory osteoarthritis (OA) synovium and synovial fluid immunohistochemistry and ELISA respectively. Results: Periostin was most strongly expressed in osteoid/woven bone of neoplastic and non-neoplastic bone-forming lesions, including osteoblastoma, osteosarcoma, fibrous dysplasia, osteofibrous dysplasia, fracture callus and myositis ossificans, and mineralised chondroid matrix/woven bone in chondroblastoma and clear cell chondrosarcoma. Reactive host bone at the edge of growing tumours, particularly in areas of increased vascularity and fibrosis, also stained strongly for periostin. Vascular elements in RA synovium strongly expressed periostin, and synovial fluid levels of periostin were higher in RA than OA. Conclusions: In keeping with its known role in modulating the synthesis of collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins in bone, strong periostin expression was noted in benign and malignant lesions forming an osteoid or osteoid-like matrix. Periostin was also noted in other bone tumours and was found in areas of reactive bone and increased vascularity at the edge of growing tumours, consistent with its involvement in tissue remodelling and angiogenesis associated with tumour progression.