Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are believed to play a major role in controlling virus levels through the asymptomatic period of HIV infection. For the rational design of an HIV vaccine, we need to know whether protective immunity can ever develop following HIV exposure in people who remain uninfected. We have detected HIV-specific CTL in 5/6 repeatedly exposed, persistently seronegative female sex-workers in The Gambia. Their CTL, repeatedly detected over two years, recognise epitopes presented by HLA-B35 which are cross-reactive between HIV-1 & HIV-2, suggesting they could have been primed first by HIV-2 exposure and subsequently boosted by exposure to HIV-1. Using previously identified clade B HIV-1 epitope peptides, we have now detected HIV-specific CTL in 6/15 highly exposed and apparently HIV-resistant Kenyan prostitutes, predominantly towards epitopes highly conserved between B and the Kenyan A & D clades of HIV-1. This CTL activity towards conserved virus epitopes may represent protective immunity to HIV generated in response to repeated exposure, and prophylactic HIV vaccines should aim to generate similar CTL responses.


Journal article


Dev Biol Stand

Publication Date





209 - 214


Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Africa, Africa South Of The Sahara, Behavior, Biology, Clinical Research, Cytology, Developing Countries, Diseases, Eastern Africa, English Speaking Africa, Gambia, Hiv Infections, Immunity, Immunity, Cellular, Immunological Effects, Kenya, Physiology, Prostitutes--women, Research Methodology, Research Report, Sex Behavior, Vaccines, Viral Diseases, Western Africa, Cells, Cultured, Cross Reactions, Epitope Mapping, Female, Gambia, HIV Infections, HIV-1, HIV-2, HLA-B35 Antigen, Humans, Kenya, Sex Work, T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic