Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Vaccines against a variety of infectious diseases represent one of the great triumphs of medicine. The immune correlates of protection induced by most current vaccines seem to be mediated by long-lived humoral immune responses. By contrast, there are no currently available vaccines that are uniformly effective for diseases such as HIV, malaria and tuberculosis, in which the cellular immune response might be crucial in mediating protection. Here we examine the mechanisms by which long-lived cellular immune responses are generated and maintained in vivo. We then discuss current approaches for vaccination against diseases in which cellular immune responses are important for protection.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





793 - 798


Animals, Humans, Immunity, Cellular, Infection, Infection Control, Vaccines