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Observed mutation rates in humans appear higher in male than female gametes and often increase with paternal age. This bias, usually attributed to the accumulation of replication errors or inefficient repair processes, has been difficult to study directly. Here, we describe a sensitive method to quantify substitutions at nucleotide 755 of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene in sperm. Although substitution levels increase with age, we show that even high levels originate from infrequent mutational events. We propose that these FGFR2 mutations, although harmful to embryonic development, are paradoxically enriched because they confer a selective advantage to the spermatogonial cells in which they arise.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





643 - 646


Acrocephalosyndactylia, Adult, Aged, Aging, Amino Acid Substitution, DNA Mutational Analysis, Female, Heterozygote, Humans, Ligands, Male, Middle Aged, Models, Genetic, Models, Statistical, Mutation, Paternal Age, Point Mutation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2, Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Selection, Genetic, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Sex Characteristics, Spermatogenesis, Spermatogonia, Spermatozoa, Stem Cells