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Although DNA vaccines have been shown to elicit potent immune responses in animal models, initial clinical trials in humans have been disappointing, highlighting a need to optimize their immunogenicity. Naked DNA vaccines are usually administered either i.m. or intradermally. The current study shows that immunization with naked DNA by direct injection into a peripheral lymph node enhances immunogenicity by 100- to 1,000-fold, inducing strong and biologically relevant CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. Because injection directly into a lymph node is a rapid and easy procedure in humans, these results have important clinical implications for DNA vaccination.

Original publication




Journal article


Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

Publication Date





3299 - 3303


Animals, Antigens, Viral, Cell Line, DNA, Viral, Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte, Glycoproteins, Homeodomain Proteins, Immunodominant Epitopes, Injections, Intralymphatic, Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Peptide Fragments, Plasmids, T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic, Vaccination, Vaccines, DNA, Viral Proteins, Viral Vaccines